1. Characteristics of Laser Pointers
2. Construction of Laser Pointers
3. Colors of Laser Pointers
4. Powers of Laser Pointers
5. Classification of Laser Pointers
6. Regulations and Labelling of Laser Pointers
7. How to Interpret the Labelling not to be Deceived
8. Misuse of Laser Pointers
9. Safe Use of Laser Pointers
10. Key uses of Laser Pointers
10.4. Night Photography
10.8. Festivals and Shows
A laser (Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation, or light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation), is a device that uses a quantum mechanical effect (induced or stimulated emission), for generating a coherent light beam of a suitable means and the size, shape and purity controlled. Indeed, it is a light emitter, but as special as extraordinarily versatile light, so that the laser devices in its many facets, are increasingly present in our daily lives for years now and incessantly in evolution . They can be a simple pointer to point on a map, the eye reading a DVD, or be of vital importance in the technology applied to many scientific circles, from medicine to engineering, aerospace, defense, etc. ..
A laser pointer is a small device with a size ranging from a pen-like (or even smaller type Key), to an average-sized flashlight that emits a laser light, usually green or red and that is often used to indicate a specific point or place as day show only point of light when striking an opaque surface. Laser light is intense, therefore also the pointers is. Although they are only a few milliwatts of power, they are able to produce a high intensity beam of a millimeter in diameter. In fact, their intensity can be equal to that of sunlight. Any ordinary lamp emits a much higher amount of the laser light of a small but scattered in all directions.
Laser beams are narrow and do not disperse as does a light bulb. This quality is called directionality and which allows its use as a pointer for presentations. It is known that not even light bulb achieves a powerful travel far: if you focus skyward, its beam seems to fade away. The beam begins to spread in the time out of focus, to achieve such a degree of dispersion comes to lose its usefulness. However, they have managed to reflect laser beams of a few watts of power on the moon and its light was still bright enough to see from Earth. One of the first laser beams being shot to the moon in 1962 only reached four kilometers spread over its surface which was at a distance of three hundred and eighty thousand kilometers.
Lasers produce monochromatic light, that is, single color. The common light contains all the colors of visible light (the spectrum), which combined together, they become white. The laser beams have been produced in all colors of the rainbow (although the most common are red and green), and also in many types of invisible light; but a specific laser may only issue solely one color. Certain lasers can emit monochromatic several frequencies at once, but not a continuous spectrum containing all colors of visible light as a light bulb can do. In addition, there are numerous lasers projecting invisible light, such as infrared and ultraviolet.
As for the most common uses of laser pointers are: fun, astronomy, photography, signage, experiments, presentations, studies, visual spectacles, acupuncture, ear , mountaineering, hunting, airsoft...
Classic red pointer carries in its simplest configuration, a laser diode that emits red light whose measured wavelength in nanometers, can range from orange-red (635nm) to dark red (690nm). From 700nm red it is so dark that our eyes no longer be perceived and that's when it becomes infrared. That is an invisible for us but more dangerous lightning, because we can not see it. Before this diode a lens focused correctly produces a thin beam of laser light is placed.
The green laser pointer functions in a very different way: as the green laser diode is not fully developed, an indirect method is used to achieve the desired color, called DPSS (Diode Pumped Solid State) or diode pumped solid state.
A green pointer carries a laser diode invisible infrared light (at 808nm) and high power that focuses on a doped crystals that change color laser. The result of this process is green laser at 532nm. The problem is that not all of the infrared laser is turned into green, but only 20% and the rest is transformed into heat and also a part of the infrared light leaves the glass with green, so the infrared filter sets (IR).
Partial detail of the interior of a 200mW green laser pointer with IR filter. It is seen as the infrared laser that is emitted from the inside, it's become green at the exit, passing through the doped crystals. IR filter on top.
Through superior IR lens, you can see the tiny green glass polarizing beam and makes it the green light to 532nm.
To get a powerful green laser a powerful infrared laser diode is needed as the effectiveness of the glass is little, apart from the green and have a residue of infrared does not interest us.
The more bad the glass, but we in the infrared output. That's why a short distance, 20mW green laser lights matches because it has 100mw infrared. As there is a lens for collimating the green beam, infrared light leaves more open (divergent) therefore only burns near the opening. The real power is being told in green (532nm).
The problem with the lasers of poor quality, do not have an IR filter and as a result, the light output in these pointers unfiltered IR make mixing with infrared light.
The problems that infrared light is mixed the actual colors are:
1. Lasers false powers. If you buy a laser 200mW 532nm (green) and 150mW of those 200 are infrared light (808nm), then you'll really only a laser light as pure 50mW 532nm.
2. Because the IR is invisible, any bounced beam may damage your eyes and you can not see the path of the light beams, which causes them to be extremely dangerous. Furthermore although usases goggles for the eyes, the goggles only protect the visible wavelength of the laser, either 532nm in case of green, or 650nm in red for example, so that the invisible light of infrared happen without problem through glasses irreparably harming you the view.
The 'naked' is the unit of length equal to one billionth of a meter.
It is commonly used to measure the wavelength of ultraviolet radiation, infrared radiation and light. The symbol is nm nm.
Laser pointers obviously due to its function always emit in the visible range much of its beam, although depending on the quality of the laser this part will more or less.
The color of the beam of a laser is determined by the wavelength of the light emitted by the laser diode pointer.
Common lengths wave laser pointers
• 405nm: violet red next to the less visible to the human eye.
• 445nm: Blue, quite visible especially at close range.
• 532nm: green, the brightest of all, highly visible and sensitive for view
• 650nm: Red color, harder to see than others.
• 880nm: Color Infrared (IR), invisible to the human eye.
Laser pointers sold in several different colors: red and green, are the most common, but are also found in blue, violet or yellow / orange.
The output powers range from 1 mW (milliwatt) to 2 watts.
In daylight, the human eye is unable to detect the light beam exiting the laser pointer. That beam usually 1 millimeter in diameter if it is perfectly visible at night and logically be more noticeable the greater its output, reaching the beam to have a distance of over 10 kilometers. Another important thing to note is that the human eye is more sensitive to low levels in the spectrum of the green region (with wavelengths of 520-570 nm). Sensitivity decreases with wavelengths ranging from red to blue. So if we compare laser pointers of the same power, will always be more visible green than the other two color beam.
So the first question to ask when deciding the color of a pointer is why we will use?
-For Presentations or conferences, it would be with a red laser pointer with outputs of 50 to 100mW (milliwatts) or green 20 to 50mW will be more than enough, besides being the most economical.
If you need to use a set between presentations or conferences and occasionally point out stars in the sky or distant objects or used for night photography it is more convenient a green laser with a power of 20 or 50mW (milliwatts).
-For Specific use in astronomy or night vision or helps spearfishing, we must choose a green laser with more power, for example 100 or 200mW. In the evening, depending on weather conditions, its beam will have a length of more than 5 kilometers away.
-If we want to experiment with the burning of objects, green is the least likely for its constructive and we have to choose red or violet one of 300 to 500mW or one blue 1 or 2 W of power.
This is a key factor in leading, because depending on the color chosen, we will need more or less power, according to the use we want to give you.
The milliwatt, abbreviated English (mW), is a submultiple of the power unit of the International System of Units, known as Watt or Watt and whose symbol is W.
The output power of electrical appliances is expressed in watts, or are less powerful as most laser pointers, used its submultiple the milliwatt is equivalent to one thousandth of a watt.
That is, a laser pointer 200mW power is the same as 0.2W. Do not confuse mW (milliwatts) with MW (megawatts).
A red power 300-500mw pointer is great for burning things and beam, visible hundreds of meters. Usually they allow continued use of a couple of minutes off after 15 seconds.
However, a real 50mW green pointer is brighter than a red pointer 200mW, the beam is sharper and goes further.200mW green one is comparable in intensity to one blue 1W. For guiding telescopes powers of 200mW or higher it is recommended, reaching the beam having a length of more than 7 km.
Blue pointers usually 1W or 2W power, which can burn almost all kinds of things and beam reaching distances of 5 kilometers.
The infrared powers under 500mW can burn easily and black plastic objects; with power of 1W or 2W they can burn almost anything and 3W can reach a fire on certain things like cardboard.
Violet over 100mW and can burn things if it focuses perfectly in order and is at a relatively short distance, ie 5 to 20 cm. and if we point to something we can make phosphorescent take much brighter.
Laser products, taking into account the wavelength, energy content and pulse characteristics of a laser beam are classified into the following classes:
-Class 1: laser products are safe in all reasonably foreseeable conditions of use, where the radiant laser accessible (the accessible emission) energy beam is always below or equal to the maximum permissible exposure value. Therefore, for Class 1 laser, the output power is below the level at which it is believed eye damage to occur. Exposure to the beam of a Class 1 laser will not result in eye injury. Laser class 1 can therefore be considered safe. However, Class 1 laser products may contain laser systems of a higher class, but have sufficient control measures to ensure that access to the beam is not reasonably likely during normal use of the system. Examples of such products include laser printers and compact disc players (CD, DVD, Blu Ray, etc.)
Class 1M Laser class 1M are products that produce a highly divergent beam or a large diameter point. Therefore, only a small part of the whole laser beam can enter the eye. However, these laser products can be harmful to the eye if the beam is viewed with optical magnification. Some of the lasers used for communication systems fiber laser products are Class 1 M.
-Class 2: are the products that emit visible laser radiation in the range of wavelengths between 400 and 700nm (nanometers). Eye protection is normally achieved by pushing the eye, including the blink reflex (instinctive closing of the eyelids), however, should take precautions to avoid direct beam continuous view. Class 2 lasers are limited to a maximum output power of 1mW or thousandth of a watt (abbreviated mW). A person receiving exposure in the eyes of a laser beam of class 2, either accidentally or as a result of a deliberate action of another person (misuse) will be protected from injury by the very natural aversion response. It is a natural reaction that causes involuntary individuals to avoid flashing and his head, so that short exposure to the eyes. Repeated or deliberate exposure of the laser beam can not be sure. Some laser pointers and barcode scanners are Class 2 laser products.
-Class 2M: 2M lasers class are products that produce a highly divergent beam or a point of great diameter in the range 400 to 700nm wavelength. Therefore, only a small part of the whole laser beam can enter the eye and it is limited to 1 mW, similar to a Class 2 laser product However, these products can be harmful to the eye if the point is seen magnifying optical instruments or for long periods of time. Some lasers used for civil applications, such as tools and guidance level engineering are producing Class 2 lasers M.
-Class 3A: Laser products that are safe for viewing with the naked eye. They are devices of higher power class 1 and class 2 and have a maximum output power of 5mW. .For The laser emission in the range of wavelengths between 400nm and 700nm, eye protection is achieved by the consistent responses in his eyes, including the blink reflex. For other wavelengths, the risk to the naked eye is no greater than for Class 1 laser products direct insight into the beam Laser class 3A products using optical instruments (eg binoculars binoculars, telescopes, microscopes) may be hazardous. In the UK, the 3A class is classified as 3R.
-Class 3: (in Roman numerals) in the American standard, it has no criteria irradiance Class 3A previously specified in the British Standard. Therefore, a laser pointer Class IIIA properly qualified American would become 3B class device when it was classified according to the British Standard. The use of Roman numerals must indicate that the product has been classified according to the American standard. In practice, examples occur when an inappropriate 3A label has been replaced to seal IIIA. All American products are Class 3R laser IIIA under British Standard.
-Class 3B: Laser products for which direct viewing in the beam is always dangerous. The vision of diffuse reflections is normally safe. Class 3B lasers have a higher output power of 5mW and 500mW maximum (half a watt). Class 3B lasers have enough power to cause injury to the eye, direct view of the extent and reflections. The higher the output power of the device, the greater the risk of injury. Therefore, class 3B lasers are considered hazardous to the eye. However, the extent and severity of any eye injury from exposure to the beam of a laser of class 3B depend on several factors including the radiant power entering the eye and the duration of exposure.Examples of Class 3b include physiotherapy treatment used lasers and many research lasers.
-Class 4: Laser products are capable of producing powerful hazardous diffuse reflections, direct vision is always dangerous. They can cause damage to the skin and can also constitute a fire hazard. Their use requires extreme caution. Class 4 lasers have an output power exceeding 500 mW (half watt) output. There is no upper restriction on power. Class 4 lasers are capable of causing damage to the eyes and skin and also present a fire hazard if power output high enough are used. Lasers used for many laser displays, laser surgery and cutting metals usually Class 4 products.
The National Consumer Institute warns
The use of laser systems Class 3A, 3B and 4 may represent a risk not only to the user but for others located at a considerable distance.
Due to this potential hazard, only those they have been trained to an appropriate level should be allowed to exercise control over such systems.
Indications of the National Institute of Consumption:
Laser pointer all have to carry a fixed, clearly visible and legible label.
The margins of the text of the explanatory label and danger symbol must be black on a yellow background, except for Class 1 products where this combination color It's not necesary.
If the size or design of the product make it impractical labeling, the label shall be included in the user information in the package.
Depending on the type of laser product specific labeling shall be as follows:
-Class 1: Class 1 products on the label or in place, providing the following statement: CLASS 1 LASER PRODUCT
-Class 2: Class 2 products must carry a warning label with the symbol of danger of laser radiation. Also take an explanatory label with the following data:
· Legend: LASER RADIATION or LASER LIGHT DO NOT STARE INTO BEAM Laser class 2
· The maximum power of the emitted laser radiation
· The pulse duration (where appropriate)
· The length wave emitted
· The name and the date of publication of the rule in which the classification of the product (which may appear on the packaging or leaflet) is based
Such data must be accompanied by the word CAUTION.
-Class 3A: Besides described for Class 2 if these products have access panels and / or security locking systems, in addition, bear the following information
shall have affixed a label with the following: CAUTION / LASER RADIATION THIS BY OPENING NOT STARE INTO BEAM WITH NAKED EYE OR DIRECTLY WITH OPTICAL
Panels with safety locks must also have a label on each security lock that is visible before and during the neutralization of the lock and must be located near the opening created when the protective cover is removed with the following text:
CAUTION / LASER RADIATION WHEN OPEN AND WHEN THIS are neutralized SAFETY LOCKS NOT STARE INTO BEAM WITH NAKED EYE OR DIRECTLY WITH OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS
-Class 3B: Besides described for Class 2 and 3A, the legends on the label must say or LASER LIGHT LASER RADIATION EXPOSURE TO BEAM LASER PRODUCT IS HAZARDOUS LASER CLASS 3 BABERTURA DANGEROUS EXPOSURE / BY OPENING THIS RADIATION LASER
In the access panels will set a label with the following: CAUTION / LASER RADIATION WHEN OPEN THIS EXPOSURE TO BEAM IS DANGEROUS The panels with security lock carry a visible label before neutralization and blocking during and It will soon be located at the opening created by removing the protective cover with the following: CAUTION / LASER RADIATION WHEN OPEN AND WHEN THIS are neutralized SAFETY LOCKS EXPOSURE TO BEAM IS DANGEROUS
-Class 4: Class 4 products must carry a warning label affixed with the symbol of danger of laser radiation also take an explanatory label with the following information:
· The caption or LASER LIGHT LASER RADIATION EXPOSURE OF EYES OR SKIN to direct radiation or diffuse BEAM IS DANGEROUS LASER PRODUCT CLASS 4
· The maximum power of the laser radiation emitted
· The pulse duration (where appropriate)
· The wavelength emitted
· The name and date of publication the standard on which the classification is based
also each laser product must carry a label attached near the opening through which the laser radiation is emitted the following legend: HAZARDOUS EXPOSURE LASER OPENING / OPENING BY THIS LASER RADIATION
In access panels will set a label with the following: CAUTION / LASER RADIATION EXPOSURE BY OPENING THIS EYE OR SKIN to direct radiation or diffuse BEAM IS DANGEROUS
The panels with security lock carry a visible label before neutralization of the blockade and for the same and will be located proximate to the opening created by removing the protective cover with the following: CAUTION / LASER RADIATION THIS TO OPEN AND WHEN are neutralized safety interlocks EXPOSURE OF EYES OR SKIN to direct radiation or diffuse BEAM IS DANGEROUS
Other information requirements:
In any case, manufacturers of laser pointers should provide the following information to the user on the product packaging and if for reasons of space it is difficult, in a leaflet accompanying the product inside the container:
a. Suitable for correct installation, maintenance and safe operation of the laser product instructions, including clear warnings concerning precautions to avoid possible exposure to hazardous laser radiation.
b. An appropriate indication of divergence for collimated beam pulse duration and maximum transmission power units.
c. Legible reproductions (color is optional) of all labels and warnings that must be attached to laser product or provide the laser product. the corresponding position of each label on the product must be indicated, or if supplied not fixed on it, an indication that such labels could not be fixed on the product but were supplied with the same should be provided, and specifying the form and manner they were supplied.
d. A clear indication in the operating locating all laser holes.
e. An enumeration of the control devices, settings and operation and maintenance procedures, including the warning "Caution - The use of monitoring devices or adjustments or performance parameters other than those specified herein, may result in exposure to dangerous radiation. "
f. The inherent safety is to be reflected in all the catalogs, spec sheets and brochures describing classification.
Finally under Royal Decree 1468/88, the labeling of these products if sold without packaging or in the package must include
· Identification of the responsible manufacturer or seller established in the EU, with its complete address
· Product Features
· Legend that warns not to go the beam directly into the eyes
All data to which reference is made must include, at least, in Castilian, the official Spanish language of the state, with clear, prominent, indelible and legible characters by the consumer.
In the world of real mW laser pointer they are frequently altered in their nametags, placing exorbitant figures to stand out from the competition at bargain prices. Let's look at an example and based on all the information given in the previous chapters, as we can clearly identify a suspicious tag not to give us for a ride.
This is a clear example of a mislabeling and falsified half. As you can read on the label, the number of 3000mW power advertised is that from the outset, is incompatible with the Class 3B and which are identified in the last line of the label. As well discussed in the fifth chapter of this guide, the 3B class is limited to a maximum of 500mW, Class 4 passing the most power.
A second thing that makes us suspect, is the size of the head. Generally, the more powerful by having a larger cooling system and contains optical elements, depending on their construction type head.
The wavelength that is printed on the label (532nm) corresponds to green. It was discussed in the second chapter, the green pointers are constructed by a laser diode of invisible infrared light (at 808nm) and high power, which focuses on a doped crystals that change color laser, but as the same time, part of the infrared light leaves the glass with green, an infrared filter (IR) in the output to remove the residue of infrared is placed. Therefore, almost certainly, this pointer shown in the photograph, no infrared filter and the power advertised (apart from not being correct) includes both the actual power into visible light, such as infrared emission power, this being very harmful to the eye.
In addition, there is another element that many people also goes unnoticed is that the very high powers normally always be false. For example you can never be real a laser pointer green, red or greater than 500mW violet and blue to 2000mW.
Being difficult to calculate or measure the actual output of a laser pointer for the normal consumer, it is very important to see only specialized sites that offer guarantees that the offered power is real. It is also easy to distinguish real from fake mW, proving the power of burn and distance laser range by comparing the results with tables prepared by specialized sites (power-effect-result).
It is well known that millions of people around the world make use of these devices, as they have many practical uses: not only used to point at a screen when we give a lecture or make a presentation, but also also are used in astronomy to teach the stars and celestial bodies, in night photography as an aid to focus the lens of the camera, climbing to signal in case of need to be rescued, in light show, hunting by coupling parallel to the barrel of the rifle, in laboratories to burn or cut objects, and so on; but however, it is also known that many of these people without sufficient preparation, are abusing them.
The most common examples of a stupid and irresponsible use, have in the soccer fields, which are used to hinder the game of the opposing team and most of us have ever seen on television, as players, coaches and referees have It has been the target of these unscrupulous.
What are the consequences for the players exposure to laser light such as that shown in the photographs?
There are different power laser pointers from those that are harmless to people and have power of 1 mW (milliwatt) to those powers up to 2W (watts). Many of them have a very high concentration of energy, they are able to light matches, burst balloons, burning plastics, leather, wood, etc.
You can imagine what it means to apply it on the eye at close range: Studies in 2004 in US They revealed that a laser beam of 5mW (milliwatts) of power could cause burns to the retina at distances of 14 meters if it was prolonged exposure, so the issue is really serious.
However the laser beam at the output of the device has a diameter of 1 millimeter, it will disperse with distance, being able to have a diameter of about 10 cm at a distance of 70 or 80 meters and 1.5 meters diameter at a distance of 1 kilometer. Therefore, as the pupil of the human eye has an average diameter of 5 mm, it is difficult for these distances have the commented effect on the eye or on the skin, but can cause temporary blindness, since even 350 meters away, a 5mW laser power can cause it. It would be the same effect produced by the flash of a photo flash at close range and its effect can last up to several minutes.
They are also problematic in the vicinity of airports and night hours, since even at distances of 3 km, a beam of a powerful laser pointer, can interfere with the pilot's vision sufficiently to prevent a landing. This is a very delicate maneuver in which the pilot has to put the five senses and dazzling then can mislead, since the cabin is dark, with only the lights of the controls. It is unlikely a tragedy, but we must not forget that we talk about a ship with fuel at high speed, and with passengers. These incidents have become more and more numerous, has led the authorities of certain countries have restricted and even banned the sale of these pointers, as is the case in Australia, which in 2008 passed a law that banned the possession of laser devices handheld, including harmless pointers that were used in the presentations that took place in the education and business world.
Compared to traditional incandescent lamps for example 100 watts, the 5mW (milliwatts) for a typical laser pointer represent very little power. But the laser light is highly concentrated in a very narrow beam and well aligned, meaning that diverges very little. Even at a distance of 1 kilometer, the light does not diverge more than meter and a half.
If you looked directly into the beam of a laser 5mW at close range, (which of course you do!), The spot you'd see would appear brighter than the sun (and everyone knows that you should not look at the Sun directly ). The intensity of the laser light at any distance is much greater than any other light source of similar energy, emissions that spreads over a larger angle.
Lasers of class 3B or 4 that are much more powerful, they can be dangerous for example, airline pilots, so its use is regulated and drivers trained to avoid them. The problem with personal lasers is that there are millions of them in the hands of consumers, and there is no way to ensure their safe use. In some countries it is a crime to direct a laser to a person or vehicle. That is why we consider it essential to give some useful tips for proper handling of these devices:
· Laser pointers are designed to illuminate inanimate objects. Dirijas never towards people, animals, airplanes or other vehicles
· It is illegal to direct the laser towards private or public structures.
· Never look directly in front of the beam of any laser.
· Do not allow the use of laser pointers by children without supervision. They are not toys.
· In experiments to burn things, it is essential to use protective glasses that have color as eye damage may be irreparable and permanent and cover or remove from the place where the experiment was performed, the objects that may be flammable or cause reflections of light.
Work with the best possible light when operating the laser. A high level of lighting provides greater protection against eye injury due to the decreased diameter of the eye pupil.
· Do not direct the laser light into mirrors or other shiny surfaces. The reflected beam may inadvertently injure eyes of another person.
· Do not direct the laser at anyone who is using binoculars, telescope, or any other type of optical instruments.
· If your telescope is equipped with a laser pointer as a search engine with sustained-release system, do not leave it unattended when it is on.
· Do not direct the laser into the sky if you hear the engine noise from a nearby aircraft.
· Do not use the laser in a radius of 5 km. From any airport.
· As we all depends on air safety is not threatened, if we witness a laser event that could be susceptible to undermine it at some point, we must make it known to the security forces.
· The use of laser pointers is forbidden in some events of observation. Respected these prohibitions if any.
· Meet specific country regulations and bylaws of where you are going to use the laser. Although in Spain the sale and use of different kinds of lasers is allowed, the authorities can requisártelo and fined, if they had evidence that're doing improper use. In other countries like the US or England, the more powerful as those of class 3B and 4 is prohibited both marketing, as his tenure. In some parts of Australia they are prohibited until 1mW harmless.
· Do not buy a laser pointer light if no warning label and identification of its class. Inform consumption on items that seem suspicious.
Laser pointers have a simple little button that activates the laser light to be emitted and used to indicate a specific point on the surface on which is projected the presentation. This type of pointers comes to replace the old retractable "rod" used for the same purposes; the laser pointer becomes a technological refinement of the instrument.
It is the most widely used device par excellence in educational / business presentations and visual demonstrations because it is a striking pointing instrument. The red laser pointer can be used in almost any situation indoors or in low light where noted details by hand may be inconvenient, as in construction work or interior decorating.
The green laser pointer can also be used for similar purposes and Presentation outdoors during the day or for longer distances.
They are also widely used multi-function wireless computer speakers.
They emit a red laser generally, and powered by a small battery. It serves not only to move slides, because apart from the buttons for it and depending on the model, have another way to exit the presentation, select another slide, and can return to it, besides the laser reaches far, so as to draw attention the audience and highlight key areas of presentation.
They are Plug & Play devices, which only have to insert the USB receiver (which emits a radio frequency signal) and a USB driver is automatically installed in seconds harbor.
Usually have a range of up to 15m from your computer and is compatible with standard operating systems.
The green laser pointer is used by thousands of amateur astronomers around the world, to show beginners the way to the stars and constellations. The laser is powered by a small battery and emits a narrow, intense beam of green light with a wavelength of 532 nanometers. At night the beam is visible up to several kilometers, depending on weather conditions.
The laser pointers used by astronomers use a neodymium laser diode with 200mW power, seem much brighter than ordinary produce a red light with wavelengths greater than 630 nanometers wavelength. The reason is simple: the human eye is more sensitive to green light than red.
The Big Dipper and the Little Dipper separated by the beam of a laser pointer 200mW verder GreenFire.
Total length of the beam 10 kilometers. It seems that the laser can "touch" the stars.
On clear nights, if a 200mW green laser is directed to the sky, for you and anyone in the immediate proximity, it seems that the beam ends in pointed star or planet. This makes it particularly simple to indicate any, a given object. Just point the laser and say, "Look there."
Most lasers only work while holding down the switch, but some models have a light beam system maintained.These have become increasingly used as guides for telescopes. Once assembled and aligned with it, simply move the telescope until the laser point to the object and it will be in the visual field.
Laser pointers are the best method to identify any object in the sky to the public and would be a shame these helpful tools for education, were restricted by law.
Amateur astronomers can help minimize this risk using them with common sense, following the advice given in the previous chapters, and educating others about the safe use of these devices.
Whenever burning experiments with laser pointers (only and exclusively for purely educational purposes) are made, it is absolutely necessary to use protective goggles specific wavelength to emit laser. Ensure that carries no risk for the user or for other persons, and of course to be of age.
For experiments with laser pointers specific protective eyewear is always necessary for the wavelength that we are using
We go over a few examples of what we are capable of doing these small devices:
·Burning plastic bags
Almost any laser pointer Class 3B be able to burn plastic bags. Runtime varying depending on the color and the laser power, distance and color of the bag. Thus, from the 20mW green laser pointer, red 50mW or 100mW violet laser laser, and be able to drill them.
If DPSS laser system that emits green or blue light, the mechanism to facilitate the burning of the bags, is blurring the most of the light beam. This will get you a head very close distances, the point of maximum concentration of energy are, with the beam diameter of the smallest possible light. If we put the bag there, the beam pierce easily.
To facilitate drilling should be left black or dark-colored bags as light colors that absorb more energy or make a mark with a marker pointing to the places where it will affect the beam.
Slightly more powerful lasers longer be able to exploit balloons. The time will get depending on the color and the laser power, the distance, the color of the balloon and other secondary considerations such as environmental temperature and relative humidity. 100mW red pointers are suitable for this purpose but any color can do it without problems. Thus, a 200mW green laser pointer can burst a balloon in a split second, but instead a 50mW green laser need several seconds.
The balloon color is very important. Why? The matte black color absorbs more energy than the other colors, so it is much easier to exploit a black or dark colored one light-colored balloon. If you used a small magnifying glass to burn things, you remember something happened: objects were burned black and white instantly took much more burn. The key is light reflecting and let the white (of the laser bounces and scatters part inside the balloon and so they can not heat) and absorbing black color.
A laser pointer can burst a balloon in black but instead has no effect on a globe in white. In these cases you can just paint a flag with a black marker, in the place where we go to direct the laser beam to blow it irreversibly.
A very common practice among fans, is to light matches using the pointer. If a laser with focuser, the mechanism to facilitate the arrest of the match, is blurring the previously mentioned beam. If at the point of maximum concentration, which is close distance of the pointer, put the head of the match, this is quickly turn if we use powers of 100mW or more.
Laser pointers without focuser we can help with a magnifying glass focusing perfectly the laser beam to burn and even some black paint matches so you can burn more easily.
If you are smoking and you have run out of both matches with the laser light them, you do not worry because you can also turn the cigar using laser light, as long as this is a power from 200mW.
·Burn hard cardboard and plastic
Pointers with high powers from 300mW addition to the above are also capable of burning cardboard and rigid plastic.
Only the most powerful 2W as blue laser pointers are capable of burning wood.
Obviously as we increase the laser power, also have to be more cautious and extreme measures of security and integrity of those involved in the experiments, suitably protected and following the recommendations in Chapter 9 of this series of articles.
Every amateur photographer knows that the right approach to a shot, determines the success of a good photograph. Conversely, inadequate approach ruin a snapshot that may represent a unique and unrepeatable.Today, almost all existing cameras on the market offer autofocus works well in good lighting conditions. Some compact cameras as well as practically all bridge or SLR cameras offer manual focus that allows the photographer to freedom when specifying the exact point of focus.
However, things get complicated in low light. Most cameras are unable to focus properly because their automated systems work by detecting contrast and if there is no sufficiently powerful point of light within the frame, such as a street streetlights or moonlight, the It goes crazy camera continuously moving target, making it impossible to make a presentation.
The problem is increasing in landscape photography in the field, where you have to resort to manual focus, increasing the difficulty focusing at closer distances. Or if you want to make a night photography long exposure on the beach, with waves breaking, etc., because the camera does not focus us because there is not enough light for it. We have several possibilities to go through: focus on eye.
Calculate the hyperfocal (the range forward and backward you will come out focused on the photo. That way you do not have to focus at the right point, but one nearby).
Or as usually we have the camera on a tripod, simply point a laser hand to the point that we want to focus on. As the laser light is of a very high intensity, the camera will have no problems detecting the point of light that enters the frame. (Note: it is not convenient very powerful lasers, since if very visible outside the beam path, it could fool the camera focus Select if the camera allows, the focus point for this type of use laser pointers more. They suitable would be green with powers between 50 and 100mW.).
Once the camera has detected and focused the end point of the laser beam, you can put the focus to manual, turn off and save the laser in your pocket, point and shoot without you then try to focus the camera. So simple and so effective.
And as proof of this, this photograph. Always we get optimal results.
The airsoft is a sport game and strategy based on military simulation. This is a war game using replica firearms which fire small plastic balls biodegradable a size 6 or 8 mm in diameter, known as BBs. The term "airsoft" translates as "soft air", referring to the method of propulsion of ammunition.
The game scenarios are usually fitted with elements that offer a similar realism to real environments similar to war and military, as protective vests, carrying boots, binoculars, mirrors, flashlights, maps, radio transmitters, etc. equipment, which provide some advantage in communication and detection of enemy players.
Every player assistant must be in possession of weapons and its replica have facial measures and mouth guard with neoprene masks and goggles that meet the approval EN166B (or greater) impact resistance (They hold up to 6 Joules of kinetic energy. The maximum kinetic energy of the projectiles is allowed less than 3 Joules) .In addition is forbidden to remove them during the game.
After receiving an agreed number of impacts, the player is eliminated. The balls employed are approximate speed output of 100 m / s (in a generic reply unmodified). The low weight of these makes your effective range not go beyond 30-40 meters. The heavier projectiles (from 0.30 to 0.48 grams) are normally used for long-range sniper, because they are more stable in flight and is more difficult than being diverted by the wind, thus offering more accuracy.
The Spanish Federation of Airsoft sets minimum safety distances in which a gun can not be fired, ranging from less than 5 meters for a pistol at 30 meters for a sniper.
Apart from the replica as such, to increase their effectiveness usually add any accessories, such as laser sight or telescopic bipod, silencer, etc.
As stipulated in the rules of materials of the Spanish Federation of Airsoft, both laser designators adapted to the marker, such as lasers or similar pointers that can be used to facilitate targeting or to designate targets are permitted, provided they are not type of laser that can cause damage by direct effect or diffuse reflection.
The use of laser as a support for the aim of the replicas is subject to rational use, and the precept of not directly point to any player in the eyes voluntarily. Continued exposure in the retina with any type of laser can cause irreversible eye damage.
Conclusion: for daytime operations, the ideal is a green laser of low intensity, since as discussed in previous chapters, the point of the green laser is much more visible than red, so we get something very useful for shooting without point because not damaged, but in any way prevent eye pointing to the legs and hips, it solves a few situations closely, which could have "friction" and profanity.
Also keep in mind that night and CQB (battlefields rather closed as buildings and the like), a red pointer 100mW or less works perfectly, as not betrays the wearer, since the beam red It is more difficult to distinguish the green, if not stare from the front.
This practical accessory for hunting, improving the accuracy of the simplest way possible, then projects a laser beam (red or green) with an effective range of up to 200 meters (depending on ambient light) on the target that is being pointed. This type of laser pointers can be mounted directly on a rifle or a telescopic sight with its accessories, and allows both vertical and horizontal adjustment.
If hunting is recommended for night red one with 200 or 300mW centered towers and combined with a flashlight.The green lasers are more suitable for daytime hunting because green is more visible than any other color, the night his face would look like from hundreds of meters away and going to hunt not to mount a nightclub.
It can be operated directly via the corresponding button or connected to an extension cord with switch included and allows to operate the laser pointer while you have your finger on the trigger.
Furthermore, this type of pointers can be used for both hunting and presentations, events, classes, etc.
Such pointers are also disadvantages. Full sun in diurnal activity, the laser spot can be barely, so long distances is ineffective. Therefore the pointer should be used at close range or with little or no lighting.
More advanced and modern technology models use high efficiency lasers and specific for use outdoors, animal tracking, etc...
The designators are also very effective for the hunter, as they offer a huge advantage when appointing and enlighten a piece of hunting up surprising distances. Of course, you can ride along with the rifle display to achieve a very interesting combination. The green light is also a factor to take into account the reaction of hunting pieces illuminated by it.
At first glance it may seem like a flashlight; but in reality it is an optronic night vision device, whose features and capabilities go far beyond those that can lend a traditional flashlight, although if necessary can also be used as one of them, of course.
Technology uses coherent amplified light, which is the most efficient for long distance lighting using a green laser for it with an output power of 50mW. and an optical collimator allows for full manual adjustment of beam diameter and power of lighting one 180 degree turn. That is, you can focus the lens by rotating the collimator at will, getting the light to reach targets at distances of 465 meters. Obviously, the scope will always influenced by environmental conditions: rain, fog, dust ...
These designators possible to focus full illumination only where it is needed, with the least amount of energy loss by "overflow" and offering full control of the laser beam for maximum illumination of the desired object. However, do not forget that he also will have a magnificent source of light for many other activities and situations, including emergency, rescue, tracking, signaling, etc. And it is that the laser beam is visible over long distances.
And as always, first reported on the legislation in each region with regard to the prohibitions in the exercise of hunting, as often the use of silencers, devices for illuminating targets, sighting devices forming part of a converter or amplifier electronic image and any other image intensifier, etc.
In the sport of spearfishing, you can enjoy the reach of many technologies which have almost always been directed towards improving the comfort and well-being of underwater fishing on the marine environment, or where appropriate to facilitate as far this activity possible.
Among the variety of accessories available, lasers are also sold for spearfishing guns, watertight up to 20 meters deep.
Obviously, the color of the laser has to be green, because it is the most apparent to the eye color, and its intensity is stronger and in the marine environment is not lost as easily as red, which lost around 12 meters, being almost imperceptible to our field of vision.
It can be integrated both guns and rifles tire rubber, in the latter, mounted on the bottom of the tube.
This accessory makes the rifle as if it were a sniper and then opens a dilemma Do we want to be athletes struggle with the piece in a hostile environment that is not ours, or just sniping from afar?
In any case, previously reported reading the current legislation, regulations and specific rules if in some places was prohibited its use.
The entertainment at parties and shows is one of the applications that have been found to lasers. The most common use of lasers in entertainment can be seen in the special effects used in laser shows. Clubs, festivals and outdoor concerts using high power lasers, security measures, like a show. Laser shows are often extravagant, lenses, mirrors and smoke.
Some models of laser pointers are prepared for screwing an interchangeable head, which is adapted inside a small kaleidoscope, which allows numerous light effects, which considerably extends the usability of these pointers and make it ideal for creating visual spectacles.
A kaleidoscope is a tube containing three mirrors that form a triangular prism with its reflective side facing inside, the end of which are two translucent sheets between which there are several objects of different colors and shapes, whose images are multiplied symmetrically as you turn the tube while looking at the opposite end. These mirrors can be arranged at different angles. A 45th of each eight duplicate images are generated. A 60th observed six and 90 four duplicates.