·Laser Wikipedia

Here you will learn the meaning of the most common terms used in the world of laser.


-Laser Pointer

A laser pointer is a small device that emits a laser light, usually green or red, which is often used to indicate a point or specific location. Usually, a laser pointer is an essential tool for good making a presentation of a project, sample some point on a map, etc.

Laser pointers have a little button that activates the laser light to be emitted and used to indicate a specific point on the surface on which is projected the presentation. This type of pointers comes to replace the old retractable "rod" used for the same purposes; the laser pointer becomes a technological refinement of the instrument.

The laser term comes from English and is the acronym: "Light Amplification by the Stimulated Emission of Radiation", and that translates into Spanish as "light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation."

The particular feature of laser, which allows its use as a pointer for presentations is called directionality. This feature is that the laser beam does not disperse as regular light beams. Among other characteristics of the laser are the coherent radiation, it is that, when electric current passes through it, the radiation is emitted in the form of infrared, which allows the laser to be visible to the human eye.

As for laser pointers the most common uses are: fun, astronomy, photography, signage, experiments, presentations, studies, visual spectacles, acupuncture, ear, mountaineering, hunting, airsoft...

But the laser is not only used as a pointer, due to its characteristics, the laser is used in various fields. It can be found in CD players, fiber optic systems, as well as in the medical and industrial area. For example, in the area of health, you may find that the laser is used in cutting and cauterizing tissue, as it allows these two procedures in one step and without causing further damage. Also it used in eye surgery, bone drilling and testing laboratory.

 

-mW (Milliwatt - milliwatt)

The English milliwatt or milliwatt (mW) is a submultiple of the power unit of the International System of Units known as Watt or Watt and whose symbol is W.

The output power of electrical appliances is expressed in watts, or are less powerful and most laser pointers, used its submultiple the milliwatt is equivalent to one thousandth of a watt.

That is, a laser pointer 200mW power is the same as 0.2W. Do not confuse mW (milliwatts) with MW (megawatts).

One watt is equivalent to 1 joule per second (1 J / s) and is one of the derived units. Expressed in units used in electricity, one watt electrical power is produced by a potential difference of 1 V and an electric current of 1 ampere (1 volt-ampere).

The term "watt" is Castilianization watt, a unit named after James Watt for his contributions to the development of the steam engine, and was adopted by the Second Congress of the British Association for the Advancement of Science in 1889 and by the eleventh General Conference on Weights and Measures in 1960 and built the power unit in the International System of Units.

In the world of real mW laser pointer pointers they are often altered in their identification stickers, placing exorbitant figures to stand out from the competition at bargain prices.  l be difficult to calculate or measure the actual output of a pointer Laser for normal consumer, is very important to see only specialized sites that offer guarantees that the offered power is real. It is also easy to distinguish real from fake testing mW power burn and distance laser range by comparing the results with tables prepared by specialized sites (power-effect-result). In TorLaser have multiple tables compare and guides mW real differentiation false. 


 

-Class

UNE EN 60825-1 / A2-2002, laser products, taking into account the wavelength, energy content and pulse characteristics of a laser beam are classified into the following classes:

·Class 1: Laser products are safe under all reasonably foreseeable conditions of use, including the use of optical instruments in direct vision.  
·Class 1M: Lasers that emit in the range of wavelengths (lambda) between 302.5 and 4000 nm are safe in reasonably foreseeable conditions of use, but can be dangerous if optical instruments are used for direct view.  
·Class 2: (Power between 1 and 5 mW) . Lasers emitting visible radiation in the range of wavelengths between 400 and 700 nm. Eye protection is normally achieved by aversion responses including the eyelid reflex. This reaction can provide adequate protection while optical instruments are used.  
·Class 2M: Lasers emitting visible radiation (400 to 700 nm). Eye protection is normally achieved by aversion responses including the eyelid reflex, but the vision of the beam can be dangerous if optical instruments are used.  
·Class 3R: Lasers that emit between 302.5 and 106 nm, the direct view of the beam is potentially dangerous but their risk is lower than for Class 3B lasers. They require fewer manufacturing requirements and control measures applicable to user Class 3B lasers. The accessible emission limit is less than 5 times the LEA Class 2 in the 400-700 nm range, and less than 5 times the LEA Class 1 for other wavelengths.  
·Class 3B: (Power 5 to 500mW) .Lasers whose direct vision of the beam is always dangerous (eg. Within the Nominal Ocular Hazard Distance).The vision of diffuse reflections is normally safe. 
·Class 4: (Less than 500mW Power). Lasers can also produce hazardous diffuse reflections. They can cause damage to the skin and can also be a fire hazard. Their use requires extreme caution.

 

-nm (Nanometer - Wavelength)

The 'naked' is the unit of length equal to one billionth of a meter. "Nano" means one billionth. 
It is commonly used to measure the wavelength of ultraviolet radiation, infrared radiation and light. The symbol is nm.

The length of a wave is the spatial period and the distance from pulse to pulse. Normally they considered two consecutive points having the same phase: 2 maximum, 2 minimum, 2 zero crossings. For example, the distance traveled by blue light (which travels at 299,792,458 m / s) during the period between 2 consecutive maximum electric or magnetic field its time, is the wavelength of the blue light. The red light travels at the same speed, but the electric field increases and decreases more slowly than the blue light. Therefore, the red light will have a lower frequency making their wavelength (distance between similar points of the wave) is greater. Thus the wavelength of red light is greater than the wavelength of blue light.

Laser radiation is electromagnetic radiation emitted by a laser product in the range of wavelengths between 180 nm and 1 mm, which is radiated as a result of stimulated emission of light.

The range of wavelengths between 180 nm and 1 mm, includes ultraviolet radiation, visible radiation and infrared radiation in the following sequence:

·180-400 nm - UV 
·400-700 nm - visible 
·700 nm - 1 mm - infrared

Laser pointers obviously due to its function always emit in the visible range much of its beam, although depending on the quality of the laser this part will be higher or lower.

The color of the beam of a laser is determined by the wavelength of the light emitted by the laser diode of the laser pointer.

The human eye is more sensitive to some wavelengths than others, which is why green laser is the brightest. In the next picture we see how it affects:

-Longitudes Most common wave laser pointers:

·405nm: Violet red next to the less visible to the human eye.

·445nm: Blue, quite visible especially at close range.

·532nm: Green, the brightest of all, very visible and noticeable to the eye

·650nm: Red color, more difficult to see than others.

·880nm: Color Infrared (IR), almost invisible to the human eye.


 

-Filter IR

Most green shoddy laser pointers used an infrared diode beam to create the color of the laser and do not have an IR filter. Because of this, the light output of the lasers can be mixed with infrared light. 
Infrared light is invisible to the human eye because its wavelength (808nm).

The problems that infrared light is mixed with the actual colors are:

1. Lasers false powers. If you buy a laser 200mW 532nm (green) and 150mW of those 200 are infrared light (808nm), then you have a laser that really just light as 50mW pure 532nm. 

2. Because the IR is invisible, any revotado ray You can damage your eyes because you can not see the path of the light beams, causing extremely dangerous this type of laser. Furthermore although usases goggles for the eyes, the goggles only protect the visible wavelength of the laser, either 532nm in case of green, or 650nm in red for example, so that the invisible light of infrared happen without problem through glasses irreparably harming you the view.

Luckily laser quality as all green TorLaser has an internal component called IR filter, which is responsible for filtering the output light removed any residual part of infrared light and ensuring that the output power is 100% emitted in the visible wavelength. 
This is one of the big differences that make a TorLaser pointer is equal to or even much lower power, more luminous and powerful than others of dubious quality.

As you will see it is not only a difference in outcome, but also security.

Note: A meter laser power is only able to measure the power in mW output that laser is not able to show how much power is being emitted at different wavelengths, so it would not be a reliable test to prove that really is the laser power according to its wavelength. For this data would require testing brightness, brightness and range. 

 

-Kaleidoscope

A kaleidoscope is a tube containing three mirrors that form a triangular prism with its reflective side facing inside, the end of which are two sheets traslúidas among which there are several objects of different colors and shapes, whose images are multiplied symmetrically as you turn the tube while looking at the opposite end. These mirrors can be arranged at different angles. A 45th of each eight duplicate images are generated. A 60th observed six and 90 four duplicates. 

In laser pointers it has been adapted to small interchangeable heads that allow large light effects, which expands considerably the possibilities of using the pointer, making it ideal for creating visual spectacles. 




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